Ultra High Temperature Ceramics: Densification, Properties and Thermal Stability
J.F. Justin, A. Jankowiak
Hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, and propulsion applications all require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres attemperatures in excess of 2000°C and sometimes over the course of a longworking life. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are good candidates tofulfill these requirements. Within this family, the ZrB2 and HfB2 based composites are the most attractive. The oxidation resistance of diboride-based compounds is better than that of SiC-based ceramics thanks to the formation of multi-oxide scales composed of a refractory oxide (skeleton) and a glass component. Onera is actively involved in several programs to develop such materials for both hypersonic civilian flights and for propulsion systems.
In this paper, we present the ZrB2-SiC, ZrB2-SiC-TaSi2 and HfB2-SiC-TaSi2 composites developed in the Onera laboratories for leading edges or air intakes of future hypersonic civilian aircrafts flying up to Mach 6 (T~1100°C-1500°C) with comparisons with the state of the art. Then we discuss new perspectives for higher temperature applications (T>2000°C).
Accelerated video of a 10 minutes test under high-enthalpy hypersonic flow in the L2K arc-jet facility at DLR Cologne (assessment of performance of a HfB2/SiC/TaSi2 disc at ~1500°C)